Anatolian Civilizations Mesopotamia

There are 8 Anatolian civilizations in Mesopotamia.

1-Hittites 2-Phrygians – 3-Ions

4-Urartians 5-Lydians 6-Sumerians

7-Babylonians 8-Assyrians

1 – HITTITES: (2000 BC – 1200 BC) – 800 YEARS

Hittites, BC. 2000 – BC They ruled in a large part of Anatolia and Northern Syria between the years 1200. The language spoken by the Hittites belonged to the Indo-European family and they probably came to Anatolia from the Caucasus. Anatolian civilizations were located in a place called Mesopotamia.

It is the strongest state established in Anatolia in the first age. It is ruled by the kingdom, and its capital is the city of Hattusha in the Bogazkoy district of Corum. The queen named TAVANANNA helped the kings. This shows the value the Hittites gave to women. The Pankuş Council, a council of nobles, is an institution that helps kings in administration. After the war with the Egyptians, it signed the first treaty of the world, which was the Kadesh treaty, in 1280 BC. The kings dictated everything they lived in annals called Anal to account for the Gods. They went forward in the field of architecture and built huge dams and temples. His most important works are the Lion Gate and İvriz Reliefs.

2 – FRIGERS (750 BC – 300 BC) – 450 – TUMULUS – Anatolian Civilizations and Mesopotamia

Phrygians are a people who lived in Central Anatolia in Antiquity. They probably came to the region from Southeast Europe after the destruction of the Hittites around 1200 BC. (750 BC – 300 BC) In the Midas period (725-675 BC), they reached the level of a powerful kingdom that dominated all Central and Southeastern Anatolia. The period when they started to settle in Anatolia (around 1200 BC) is the period of the Bronze Age Collapse. Their country was named after Phrygia. Anatolian civilizations are on Mesopotamia.

The capital of Phrygians is the city of Gordion in Polatlı district of Ankara. The Phrygian king Gordios founded it. After the king of Gordios, his son Midas raised the Phrygians. The best times are during the king Midas period. The main sources of income are agriculture and animal husbandry. They have gone very far in weaving, mining and furniture business. The person called the fibula also invented the fork needle. His most important works are the King Midas Tumulus and the King Midas Monument.Anatolian civilizations mesopotamia.

3 – IONS

The Ions were established as city states called polis, on the Aegean coasts. These police were established in Ephesus, Milet, Foça and Izmir. Ions dealing with maritime trade were a very rich civilization. They went very far in the field of science and art. Hippocrates in medicine, Pythagoras in Mathematics, Herodotus in History and Diogenes in Philosophy contributed to humanity. They contributed to the formation of the Latin alphabet. The most important works of art are the Temple of Artemis and the Ancient City of Ephesus.

4 – THE URARTU CIVILIZATION

It is a civilization established in the Eastern Anatolia Region in the First Age. The capital of the Urartians ruled by a central kingdom is Tuspa, today’s name Van. They dealt with agriculture, animal husbandry and mining depending on the geographical characteristics of the region where they were established. The Urartians, who went forward in the architectural field, surrounded their cities with solid walls. They brought the water accumulated in the dams built in front of the streams to their cities and agricultural areas through canals. One of the works that have survived from the Urartians is the Van Castle. Urartians, who also advanced in stone processing, buried their dead in the rock tomb together with their daily belongings. This situation shows that there is a belief in Urartians that life continues after death.

5 – LIDANS – Anatolian Civilizations Mesopotamia

It was established in the west of Anatolia in the First Age in the fertile plains between the Gediz and Menderes rivers. The capital of the Lydians, ruled by the central kingdom, is the city of Sart near Manisa The most important source of income of Lydians, who dealt with agriculture and animal husbandry, is trade. Lydians, who had difficulty in trading by barter, invented money and advanced in mining. The invention of money allowed trade difficulties to be overcome and trade to flourish. In order to increase the commercial income of the Lydians, they opened the Karal Road starting from the city of Sart and extending to Mesopotamia. The King’s Road has improved trade between states and increased cultural interaction between civilizations.

Mesopotamian Civilizations

The region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, starting from the Taurus Mountains and extending to the Persian Gulf, was named Mesapotamia. Due to the favorable climatic conditions, fertile lands irrigated by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and its location on trade routes, many states were established in this region in the First Age. The most important of these are the Sumerians, Assyrians and Babylonians. These civilizations, which made important studies in fields such as science, art, education and made important contributions to the history of humanity, influenced the civilizations of Anatolia, Egypt and India.

6 – SUMERS – Anatolian Civilizations Mesopotamia

It is the first civilization established in Mesopotamia. They lived in the city states called the Site. Cities such as Ur, Urug, Lagash and Eridu are some of these states. At the head of these sites was the king called (Patesi) or (Ensi). The greatest contribution of the Sumerians to human history is their invention of writing. Since the shapes of the writings written on clay tablets resemble nails, this writing was called (cuneiform). The cuneiform invented by the Sumerians was also used by some of the Ancient Anatolian civilizations.

The Sumerians invented multi-storey temples called the middle of the city-states (ziggurat). Cities were built around these ziggurat. The top floor of these pyramid-like structures was used as an observatory. The Sumerians, who observed the moon, planets and stars, invented the lunar year-based calendar, and also calculated the lunar and solar eclipses. Today, the dates of Ramadan and Eid holidays are determined according to the lunar calendar. Ziggurat has also been used as a warehouse where school and consumption surpluses are stored. The Sumerians invented the wheel and enabled the development of transportation and trade.

7 – BABIAL CIVILIZATION

Babylonians are one of the important civilizations established in Mesopotamia. The capital of Babylon, ruled by the central kingdom, is the city of Babylon. The city of Babylon is known for its buildings and architecture. It is made of blue glazed bricks to the city, with writing and pictures on it. The tower of Babel and hanging gardens were located here.

Its brightest times were experienced during the reign of Hammurabi. Hammurabi regulated the laws and changed their names to Hammurabi Laws. Hammurabi’s laws were the most developed laws, and they were based on tit-for-tat. The main livelihoods are agriculture and trade. They have gone very far in the field of Medicine and Astronomy.

8 – THE ASSURES

Established in Mesopotamia, the Assyrians were ruled by the central kingdom. King Ashurbanipal. King Ashurbanipal established the first library in history. Its capital is Ninova. They set up a strong army and a postal service for communications. They have developed in the field of architecture and decoration. King Sargon II built a large palace with more than 100 rooms decorated with pictures made of baked bricks. They have dams built to meet their water needs. The most important source of income is trade. The people of Anatolia learned writing from the Assyrians. They also attached importance to education and science.

1-Ashurbanipal has contributed to human history in the field of literature, medicine, law, history and prayers.

2-Are the Assyrians influenced by other cultures?

The Assyrians were not influenced by other cultures because they had their own established order and system.

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