What is an Enzyme? What are the Types of Enzymes?

What is an Enzyme?

What is an enzyme? Enzymes are biomolecules that accelerate chemical reactions, accelerate them, and are biological catalysts. Enzymes are the factor that increase the speed of the reaction in all reactions. The structure of enzymes is protein, that is, all enzymes consist of protein and are produced in cells.

Molecules that undergo a chemical reaction are called substrates. Enzymes transform the substrates into different molecules. The magic is in enzymes, the enzymes that convert. Reactions in living cells cannot develop without enzymes. The reaction speed of enzymes is millions of times faster than the speed of uncatalyzed molecules.

There are other catalysts besides enzymes. However, most of these catalysts are consumed and disappear after the reaction. However, enzymes are not consumed and destroyed like these catalysts, they are specific, that is, they are unique. Enzymes catalyze more than 4000 biochemical reactions. Activators are molecules that increase the enzyme working rate, while inhibitors decrease it. Factors such as temperature and pH are effective in the functioning of enzymes.

Enzyme Types:

Pepsin : It is a digestive enzyme. Pepsin breaks down proteins produced in the stomach into peptones.

Amylase Enzyme: It is an enzyme that belongs to the protein group found in the fluid secreted by the pancreas and in our saliva. The task of this enzyme is to convert starch into sugar. Converts starch into sugar.

Catalase Enzyme: This enzyme converts hydrogen peroxide in cells into water and oxygen.

Enterokinase: It is the intestinal fluid enzyme that activates trypsinogen.

Hyaluronidase Enzyme: It is the enzyme that decomposes hyaluronic acid and reduces its viscosity. This enzyme is an enzyme that increases the permeability of connective tissue and the absorption of fluids.

Kinase Enzyme: It is the enzyme that enables proenzymes to turn into active enzymes.

Lipase Enzyme: It is a different enzyme secreted from the digestive system. The task of this enzyme is to convert fats into absorbable fatty acids. Thanks to this enzyme, fats dissolve and become absorbable.

Lysozyme and muramidase : It is an enzyme found in both salivary fluid and sweat and tears. This enzyme breaks down the cell walls of some bacteria.

Mao Enzyme: This enzyme catalyzes the transformation of body components such as Epinephrine and Serotonin. Mao enzyme stands for Monoamine Oxidase.

Penicillinase Enzyme: This is also called Beta lactamase. This enzyme blocks penicillin and closes its effect. This enzyme can produce some types of bacteria resistant to antibiotic.

Pepsinogen: This enzyme, which is the precursor of pepsin, is stored in the wall of the stomach and converted into pepsin with hydrochloric acid while in the stomach.

Polymerase Enzyme: It is an enzyme that catalyzes the creation of new DNA or Rna sequences from our DNA or Rna sequences.

Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme: This enzyme is short ado SOD. It is the enzyme that transforms hydrogen peroxide and oxygen and catalyzes them. It serves to remove free oxygen radicals formed in our body.

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